EIOS compared to other types of thermal insulation
For the first time in the world, EIOS puts into practice an integrated system through Concept, Technology, and Details in order to eliminate condensation and achieve a thermal efficiency of the Thermosystem equal to the conductivity parameters of the specified materials.
The result is completely different from any other wall system's because the substrate dries compared to any other thermal insulation system which dampens when subject to different temperatures and forces the thermo-insulating material to perform up to testing optimal conditions for which the thermal transfer coefficients are specified.
The main difference of EIOS thermo-insulations is eliminating condensation through the Principle of Avoiding Condensation by contrast with most thermo-insulations that do not respect this new principle. Thermal inefficiency and associated condensation with molds and degradation are the results of using very permeable insulation materials to air/vapors, assembling them in partially sealed or unsealed conditions that are combined with vapor barriers.
EIOS represents a new concept in the thermo-system industry - a concept based on the Principle of Avoiding Condensation. It is a new approach to thermal insulations and usage of thermo-insulating materials.
In order to achieve the full functionality of any insulation system, three main conditions, seen as a whole, must be taken into account, namely:
1) CONCEPT - representing anticipated physical processes occurring during thermal insulation functioning, taking into consideration the air/vapor flow, the unidirectional warm to cold heat flow, the infiltration/exfiltration of air, and water absorption.
2) TECHNOLOGY - representing the physical chemical characteristics and the quality of the materials associated with the rules and the technical process of assembling for the realization of the concept.
3) DETAILS for implementing without the CONCEPT and the TECHNOLOGY will not give the desired results because insulation must work as an integrated construction assembly.
The CONCEPT represents the fundamental thinking on which a wall or an insulation system works.
Few profile companies offer a detailed reference based on the concept on which the promoted insulating product works.
The reason is simple: every building enclosure is designed, code-approved, and constructed according to the Moisture-Control Principles. In summary, this means to control water, airflow, vapor, and thermal flow. The term “Control” means that the cause of the problems still remains there, but the effects of the caused problems are controlled and reduced as much as possible.
The product (the insulation) does NOT work in an integrated system, and the integrated system (when defined) is flawed, accepting condensation and dampness, then drying or draining water from condensation, absorption, wind-driven, etc.
It is about thermo-insulating materials permeable to air/vapor such as fluffy/soft insulations (which are highly permeable), EPS polystyrene (semi-permeable), and others, assembled in thermal insulation systems. They are the so-called "permissive" (allow air exchange/transfer and vapor movement along with the heat transfer). The condensation occurs because the thermal insulation's role is to retain heat, but being air/vapor permeable, the vapors are transported by air and also migrate being pushed by the difference of relative pressure (between warm and cold vapors) into the cold area where they are converted into trapped water. Due to cold and warm convection (air/vapor exchenge through the joints of the panels), the same negative results occur in thermal insulation systems made out of non-permeable rigid panels assembled without continuity.
The functioning of the walls which have absorbed these thermal systems are based on a cycle of wetting and drying, namely moisture build-up in a season and moisture cession (drying) in another season. If the dampness in the cold season is due to the warm vapors from the inside, this process can also happen during the summer due to warm vapors from the outside when the interior is cooled. In this case, the wall mostly accumulates moisture; the system is outpaced, leading to rapid degradation (within 10-20 years), lowering the indoor air quality and the property value.
The permissive thermal insulating systems work on the principle that a wall can put off more moisture than it accumulates.
The concept (the basic thinking) is expressed by the manufacturers, distributors, and installers in the concept that the walls have to "breathe". In fact, the walls are exposed to condensation when a permissive wall system is the subject of temperature difference. The same walls are then expected to at least dry to the same extent. This concept is random, character which leaves the practical applications to chance, resulting in the dampening-drying cycles - inconveniences felt by many of you (mold, odor, degradation).
When a permissive thermo-system is applied to the exterior of a mineral wall (brick, concrete), these wetting-drying cycles are normal since the wall has the ability to accumulate the adsorbed water (the adsorption is the phenomenon by which the vapors pass without dew point from gas to liquid state when going through a dry body) or condensation by increasing the humidity content percentage. Condensation is also limited by a gradual cooling due to the slower flow of vapors.
In the case of permissive thermal insulations applied to exterior or interior of wood/metal walls or cavity type walls (including lofts and roof framings), this system does NOT work because the wood, metal, and plasterboard do not have the ability to accumulate water and reachs to over 20% moisture content, which nourishes and develops micro-organisms. Also, this wall type shows a much bigger air/vapor permeability than mineral wall., The air flow through the walls is rewarded for limiting condensation effects and facilitates the drying out, thus creating the so-called breath/breathing/respiration.
The result? condensation, mold, decay, discomfort, thermal inefficiency, and low R-value effectiveness of the insulation installed, expensive repairs, and loss of confidence in thermal systems.
EIOS invents a revolutionary CONCEPT, the Non-Permissive system based on the Principle of Avoiding Condensation.
The PAC and the Non-Permissive Method way of building is presented by EIOS for the first time. The goal is that the concept be understood and applied, making it become a universal principle that benefits everyone.
EIOS wholehartedly puts the NP-EIFS invention patent (Non-Permissive Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems, Concept Technology and Details) into practice which changes the concept of permeable (breathable) building-enclosure construction associated to condensation, water-intrusion, and other issues. EIOS approaches the issue from the opposite direction by inventing the Non-Permissive Concept based on completely avoiding condensation in any situation, climate, or season.
EIOS is not an innovative thermo-insulation system, as many profile companies claim. EIOS is a revolutionary CONCEPT which completely replaces the concept of permissive systems based on the possibility of drying the condensation water caused by permeable thermal insulations. It completely avoids the condensation phenomenon all together. The key science of this new Concept is that the dew point of warm vapors is always inside of the Non-Permissive EIOS Thermosystem. When vapors cannot reach the dew point area inside of the Vapor-Impermeable Insulation, condensation is avoided entirely.
EIOS Thermosystem functionality is an all-in-one water-air-vapor complete barrier and a thermal retardant, which acts as an Environmental Separator for the Thermal Envelope for the building.
The Supporting Structure of the envelope walls is placed in a single environment, usually inside of the building, shielded from any condensation or intruded water, and kept in a constant, dew-point free temperature.
The Structural Element does not have to be airtight, moisture resistant, or thermal insulator and does not participate in the building enclosure by controlling unwanted factors. By eliminating the air-tightness conditions and the air/vapor barrier usually applied on or in the Structural Element, the construction and service of this element becomes simple and rewarding.
“Breathing walls” in the Moisture-Free Concept means that the Structural Element (that is not airtight) will only absorb and release moisture from one environment (an insignificant variation of humidity content in porous materials) and does not mean the Moisture Management in building envelopes (about 1 lb/ft² of condensation water) that allows intentional airflow from inside to outside.
Therefore, EIOS is a revolutionary Concept based on leading Technology, resulting in the removal of all thermal envelope issues, including the insulation R-value Effectiveness.
Fluffy (air-based) insulations have specified an excellent heat transfer coefficient (λ = 0.04 W/mK or less) and are used on a large scale, “hoping” to achieve thermal transfer requirements. Although expectations are high, the practiced reality is that it provides a very low effectiveness in comparison to its theoretical values.
In most of the cases, permissive insulations do not transpose even 50% of the specified thermal transmittance U or resistance R for a particular product type and thickness. The reason for this drastic reduction is the air/vapor permeability (convection into the material), wetting from condensation, warm/cold air infiltration/seepage, but mostly due to convection by enveloping 'looping convection", to which thermal bridges are added. The looping convection, also called the in-cavity convection, is the phenomenon where the denser, cold air (with higher pressure) will bypass the insulating element (wool, EPS, XPS) due to massive air leakage inside of the walls and will not seek to pass through it. By doing this, the exchange of warm and cold air is done immediately without the thermo-insulating material contribution via direct cavity convection. In other words, any material can be used in the cavity (not even necessarily thermo-insulating), and if there is a possibility for the air to avoid it, the properties of the material are no longer used because insulation is not obliged to respond to thermal flow.
More features can be found in the COMPENDIUM.
The following pictures demonstrate the classical and general way of installing permissive thermal insulation:
Theoretically, it is expected that this type of insulation prevents the cold air front from meeting the warm air flow (inside the cavity), and that this material will function to thermal transfer and achieves parameters; but the reality is far from this. In addition, add the inevitable condensation to the thermal resistance of less-effective R-value and low rating of the wall (compared to the expected one), and you will feel a real frustration.
The reality of those exposed is seen by the permissive insulated homes or attics - during the summer they swelter, and in winter have exaggerated heat consumption - plus condensation, mold, odor, and degradation.
At the base of this new concept enables the XPS extruded polystyrene and polyurethane foam properties to extend to the whole building envelope, combined with special methods of sealing the endings and intersections with other construction elements (windows, doors, elements that penetrate the insulation).
The TECHNOLOGY realizes the CONCEPT.
Implementation of the Concept is possible thanks to the EIOS Technology of the Thermosystem’s application and implementing the Non-Permissive Insulations. At the base of this technology lies the XPS panel with reinvented joints that allow a double, interior-exterior sealing with expanded closed-cell polyurethane foam. By assembling the panels, two V-joints are formed - one inside (towards the wall) and one outside. The interior joint is sealed with low expansion polyurethane foam (EIOS Sealfoam) which seals and sticks on the outline. The exterior joint is sealed with polyurethane foam and over-sealed with the polymeric material EIOS Seal, specially formulated for a flexible sealing. Non-standardized joints (corners, cuts, other joints) are sealed with EIOS Sealfoam (polyurethane foam filling), the surfaces are leveled and over-sealed with EIOS Seal material. The junction with other elements is done in the same way, forming a foam filled gap, over-sealed and then a third silicone sealant is applied.
Through the double and triple sealing of vapor-impermeable insulation materials, EIOS Technology enables no convection between warm and cold, the thermal exchange being made only through the thermal conductivity of the material. Also, the EIOS Technology does not enable the applicator to accidentally mistaken, the panels being sealed on installation, following to be over-sealed before applying other finishes (ornaments, Lamina).
Another major advantage, besides avoiding condensation, and the high-degree thermal insulation efficiency is that EIOS Thermosystem can be considered as hydro-insulation. The correct application of the technology and use of EOIS materials leads to a total waterproofing (if the vapors do not pass, there is no chance for the water). Therefore, the EIOS Thermosystems can be considered thermo/hydro-insulations, a very useful fact for application on the roof framing of EIOS Sky.
It is well known that if water penetrates through a even small crack or imperfection, it compromises a big area of the living space. Even if vapor penetration through a small crack does not compromise the non-permissive system to the same extent as water, EIOS considers that these imperfections are not acceptable. It is important to keep in mind that the relative pressure differences between hot and cold vapors can reach 10 kPa values, i.e. ≈ 0,1% of an atmosphere (there is not a pushing pressure, only the vapors use this pressure to diffuse). The assembly's purpose is to resist vapor pressure, even though the materials taken individually easily meet the parameters of vapor-tightness. This cannot be achieved without a system of details which leads to the scope to obtain a continuous vapor-impermeable insulation.
The DETAILS guarantee the success of the TECHNOLOGY.
The DETAILS in the case of thermo-systems make the difference between success and failure, especially when pertaining to structures unable to manage water from condensation (wood/metal structures, plasterboard, roofs, and attics).
A good application technology of a product based on a functional concept can still have big failures if the joints, system of intersections with other constructive elements (windows, doors, etc.), thermo-system penetrations (sockets, connecting boxes, etc.), wall penetrations (pipes, cables, vents, etc), or thermo-system endings are not taken into account.
EIOS is passionate about finding and inventing new, innovative solutions in terms of detailing interfering situations with other constructive elements for Thermosystems.
EIOS urges that there be a chance to this Thermosystem, but not without consulting our specialists first due to the complexity and novelty of this technology. It is based on the understanding of the phenomena that occurs through vapor and heat transfer as well as taking into account each of the building's particularities individually.
In order to produce the most innovative, intelligent Thermosystem, EIOS provides the highest level of consulting for each project and the highest quality professionals and materials.
The thermal insulation must be designed specifically for each project individually and not viewed as a general theory. The thermo-system must not only ensure hygrothermal comfort (temperature, humidity) and energy savings (thermal efficiency) but also protect the structure against wetting (condensation, absorbed water), freeze-thaw, and degradation in order to ensure sustainability. And an added benefit is as low a "carbon footprint" as possible.
EIOS guarantees all these criterion:
The first Thermosystem based on Avoiding Condensation (by respecting the Principle of Avoiding Condensation);
The first Thermosystem that dries the structure on which it is applied;
EIOS guarantees the 99.9% Effectiveness of the thermal insulation capacity (λ, U, R) of the materials used (XPS, polyurethane foam) in favor of isolated assembly;
EIOS ensures sustainability by preserving the structure instead of degrading it;
EIOS Thermosystem provides the hydro-thermal insulation of elements with maximum efficiency in application to structures with high air/vapor permeability and susceptible to wetting/dampening;
EIOS systems and the Non-Permissive concept represent the only solution to design wetting-sensitive walls (cavity wood walls, metal profiles, OSB, plasterboard, attics, etc.), while permeable thermo-systems and moisture control are an inadequate solution;
EIOS has a high economic efficiency, paying off the investment in about 5 years through energy savings;
EIOS gives maximum interior comfort by maintaining an optimum moisture and temperature;
EIOS eliminates the stress to owners and the structure from condensation, wetting-drying cycles, molds, and decay.
At the base of the EIOS policy is the trustworthiness towards the customers, and the beneficiaries. EIOS seeks to avoid any possible issues that may occur in a wall-system, and not the sales policy. This is why EIOS will not influence any client choosing this solution if there is even a slightest suspicion of being inappropriate.